Wastewater Encapsulation: Development of Fundamental Science, Process Designs, and Operational Guidance

As sites face increasing challenges in managing wastewater streams from a variety of sources, research is needed to evaluate technologies and processes for integrated management of wastewater streams, constituents of interest, and solid byproducts such as fly ash.

The overall goal of an integrated encapsulation process is the creation of a final product that demonstrates improved environmental performance compared to landfill disposal of the individual ingredient materials alone. Past results show that wastewater encapsulation has potential to be a viable technology option for many wastewater applications. Data suggest certain applications could see reduced constituent release from landfills, leading to lower costs and reduced risk associated with additional treatment and management.

Further research is needed to better understand the leaching behavior of encapsulated materials as well as the underlying geochemical reactions that dictate constituent release. Additionally, technology integration evaluations and process testing are needed and may be beneficial for informing designs of new full-scale systems. Finally, research on technical and economic factors are needed to inform the development of operational guidance that supports long-term site goals.


  • Facilitate site-specific evaluations and case studies to inform process designs and pursue development of operational guidelines
  • Perform techno-economic analyses, identify risk mitigation approaches, and define cost factors for process implementation
  • Conduct testing to support analysis of long-term process and environmental performance data
  • Support a user group to discuss industry applications and inform the research plans

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